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Posts Tagged ‘CruiserMAXX’

It’s almost that time of year again.  Today Anna and I met with County Agent Keith Fontenot and Evangeline Parish farmer Kenneth LaHaye to discuss plans for the 2011 rice water weevil demonstration test.  Kent Guillory is the consultant who will assist with monitoring this test location.

Mr. Kenneth LaHaye, County Agent Keith Fontenot, and me discussing plans for the demo test in Evangeline Parish.

This will be the third year that we have worked with Kenneth (and his dog Harley) on a demo test site. We appreciate his continuing support of our on-farm demonstration program. The last two years we worked with Kenneth near Chicot Lake.  This year, our test site is located near Vidrine on La-10. We will provide directions to the field after planting.

Kenneth's dog Harley - she makes for great company in farm work.

In the 2011 rww demonstration test we will restrict our insecticides to the three different seed treatments that are now available on the market.  These will be compared to an untreated check.  The table below compares these products:

Kenneth will be planting RiceTec variety XL745 at a 25 pound per acre seeding rate.  The seed treatments will be arranged in two blocks, with one rep in each block.  Each rep will include two 20 ft drill passes.  We intend to plant sometime between March 12 and 15, if the weather cooperates.  Kenneth has already prepared the land for planting.   A herbicide burndown of 32 oz/acre generic roundup and 2 oz/acre Valor was applied in November, 2010.  When looking at the field we noticed some areas where his burndown did not provide control.

The weedy strips in the field are the result of tapping the boom and turning off an outside nozzle.

Kenneth asked us to post this picture to illustrate how effective a burndown put out in November can be. The missed passes in the field are the perfect example of what he could have been fighting as he prepared to plant, had he decided to wait until spring to apply his burndown.  Last season Kenneth grew soybeans in this field.  Rice will be drilled into the stale seedbed at around 25 pounds per acre.  This soybean-rice rotation can sometimes be conducive to injury from the colaspis beetle.  We’ll be sure to monitor for injury from this pest when we take stand counts two weeks after emergence.

(All photos taken by Anna Meszaros).

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This article is reprinted from the LSU AgCenter Rice Research Station newsletter.

Authors: Natalie Hummel and Michael Stout

Rice farmers in Louisiana who use seed treatments to manage insect pests in their fields have a choice of seed treatments in 2011: Dermacor™ X-100 (DuPont Crop Protection) and  CruiserMaxx® (Syngenta).  In addition, Valent has requested an experimental use permit (EUP) for NipsitInside seed treatment, an insecticidal seed treatment alternative similar to thiamethoxam.  If approved, NipsitInside will be used on a limited number of acres in Louisiana in 2011 and will potentially be available on a wider scale in 2012.  Although these three insecticidal seed treatments are similar in many respects, they also differ in key ways.  Understanding the similarities and differences between the two seed treatments is crucial to making the right insecticide choice for each rice field.

The key pest targeted by CruiserMaxx, Dermacor X-100, and NipsitInside is the rice water weevil, the most important early season insect pest of rice in Louisiana.  Dermacor X-100 has been evaluated against the rice water weevil in multiple small-plot tests over many years at the LSU AgCenter Rice Research Station in Crowley, and in addition has been used commercially in Louisiana the past three growing seasons.  Dermacor X-100 provides excellent control of rice water weevil larvae; in commercial fields, weevil populations were typically reduced by 90-95% compared to fields not treated for weevils.  CruiserMaxx has also been evaluated in multiple small-plot trials over the past several years at the Rice Research Station, and it too provides good control of rice water weevil larvae, although, in side-by-side comparisons of Dermacor X-100 and CruiserMaxx conducted in small plot trials at the Rice Research Station, control of weevil larvae given by CruiserMaxx is generally not as good as control given by Dermacor X-100.  In rice water weevil demonstration tests in commercial fields in 2010, we found that Dermacor X-100 provided the best level of weevil control, followed by pyrethroid (Karate pre, Karate pre + mustangMax on fertilizer post, or Karate post) and CruiserMaxx.  Dermacor X-100 provided significantly better control than the other two treatments.  There was no significant difference in weevil control between the pyrethroid and the CruiserMaxx seed treatment.  Unfortunately, the results from hybrid test plots (25 pound seeding rate) in 2010 did not provide any more clarity about the ability of CruiserMaxx to provide effective weevil control at the low seeding rates.  We plan to repeat the demonstration test again next season, particularly focusing on the low seeding rate question.  Small plot replicated research that may also clarify the question of effectiveness of CruiserMaxx at low seeding rates will also be conducted.  

Probably the most important difference between the three seed treatments is their activity against secondary pests.  Because these chemicals belong to different chemical classes (the active ingredient in Dermacor X-100 is a type of anthranilic diamide, whereas CruiserMaxx and NipsitInside are neonicotinoids), they are effective against different pests.  CruiserMaxx and NipsitInside will probably provide better control of colaspis larvae (present in a few fields in southwest Louisiana in 2009 and 2010) than will Dermacor X-100, and will also provide good early-season control of sucking insects such as aphids, thrips and chinch bugs.  Dermacor X-100, on the other hand, should provide excellent control of early-season Lepidopteran pests such as fall armwyorms.  Recent evidence from both Louisiana and Texas indicate that Dermacor X-100 provides protection against stem-boring insects.  Evidence from Texas also indicates that Dermacor X-100 may help control South American Rice Miner in rice.  The spectrum of pests controlled by each of these seed treatments is probably the most important consideration in choosing between the three.  As a related consideration, CruiserMaxx is marketed as part of a seed treatment “package” (CruiserMaxx® Rice) that includes fungicides that may help control seedling diseases and rice blast.

There are also similarities and differences in the agronomic practices that are used with each of these seed treatments.  Importantly, the use of both seed treatments is restricted to dry-seeded (drill-seeded or dry broadcast) rice; neither product can be used in water-seeded rice.  Also, the per-seed application rate of CruiserMaxx will not change with rice seeding rate, unlike Dermacor X-100, for which application rate is adjusted for seeding rate.  This may make CruiserMaxx easier to use, but it should be noted that the use of CruiserMaxx at very low seeding rates (for example, seeding rates typically used for hybrid rice varieties) has not always provided acceptable control in tests conducted by LSU AgCenter.  Details on the use patterns for NipsitInside are not known yet.

The expected availability of three seed treatments for insect control in rice, along with other available products for insect control (Karate, Mustang Max, and the other pyrethroids), gives Louisiana farmers a wide range of options for managing their insect pests in drill-seeded rice.  Unfortunately, there are not as many choices in water-seeded rice, and expanding the range of options for insect management in water-seeded rice is a continuing focus of research for the Entomology program.  

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UPDATE: I didn’t get any guesses about the mowing injury, well here’s the answer – it was caused by (drumroll please) Cows!  They had escaped from some nearby pasture and enjoyed munching on the edge of the rice field. 

Today we learned a good lesson about verifying the cause of crop damage.  Fred Cramer (G&H in Gueydan) had called me about whiteheads in rice.  Tiffany and I drove out to Gueydan early to beat the heat.  We met with Toby McCown and Fred at the G&H store.  We suspected that the whitehead damage was being caused by borers.  When we struck out across the Dermacor X-100 treated field we found a few whiteheads.  As we began to inspect the damaged plants, the symptoms just didn’t look like borer injury.   

Whiteheads in rice - at first we thought these would be caused by borers, but we found that was not the cause.

 

Feeding injury most likely caused by the rice field rat.

 

Rat chewing injury near a node - this resulted in whiteheads.

 

Whitehead that was most likely caused by rat feeding injury.

 

The edges of the damaged area were clean, there was no feeding lesion in the sheath or frass (insect waste), and we did not find any insects except for a few chinch bugs.  It seemed like something had chewed on the rice.  My instinct was to attribute the damage to either an animal or a chewing insect (maybe grasshoppers).  I could not confirm what had caused this damage while I was in the field.  After we wrapped up for the day, I stopped by the rice station in Crowley and showed the pictures to Johnny Saichuk – he told me the damage was probably caused by the rice field rat.  He had seen this damage about 5 years ago in Acadia Parish.  Apparently it is a fairly common problem in some parts of Texas.   

Whiteheads and some cropped rice - any guesses about what mowed the rice?

 

We continued up the road to a nearby untreated field.  Along the way, Fred pointed out a cluster of whiteheads on the edge of a field.  In addition to the whiteheads, quite a bit of the rice had been clipped.  Any idea what caused this damage?  First clue is that it was not an insect, but something else that likes grass.   

The untreated field (no insecticide seed treatment) we scouted next had just started to head.  We were able to locate a few whiteheads, and upon closer inspection found some borers injuring the rice plants.  The rice is heading unevenly, and so this makes pest management more difficult – especially the timing of sprays for rice stinkbugs and borers.   

In one plant that had a whitehead we found a feeding lesion on the leaf sheath, and under that a tiny sugarcane borer larvae.  When I cut into the stem I was surprised to find about 10 more larvae.  It’s rare to find this many borers in a single stem.  It was also discouraging because they were tiny larvae that had already bored into the stem.  An insecticide application will not control the borers once they enter the stem.  About 15% of the rice was fully headed and the rest was around split boot.  We found more borers in a few other plants, and so decided that a pyrethroid spray would be wise to attempt to prevent more whitehead injury from the borer infestation.  The farmer plans to apply 2.0 oz of Karate per acre.  Hopefully this will prevent further borer injury and control the early stink bug infestation.   

First or second instar sugarcane borer that we located behind a damaged sheath. When I cut open the stem there was a surprise...

 

I found about 10 sugarcane borer larvae had already bored inside the stem. Pyrethroid sprays will not control borers that have entered the stem.

 

In this picture you can see just how tiny these borer larvae were - they were just about 1/4 inch long and had already bored into the stem.

 

So where did the borers come from?  A neighboring field of tall weedy grass had been plowed under recently, and it is possible that the borers had moved out of that neighboring field into the rice.  

Rice Stalk borer on the tip of my finger - this larva was also small in size and had bored into the stalk. You can identify rice stalk borers by the dark head in combination with a pair of continuous stripes running the length of the body.

 

We found some classic examples of frass bring pushed out of the stalk.  

Frass forced out of the stem due to sugarcane borer feeding inside the stalk.

 

 When  I pulled back the leaf sheath, the exit hole was apparent.  

Sugarcane borer emergence hole and frass.

 

 We also found some rice stinkbugs on the heading rice that was starting to bloom.   

Rice stink bug on flowering rice - these seed suckers attack rice as soon as they can.

 

This field is also maturing unevenly, and late-season insect management will be a challenge.  Remember that in most cases once you see the injury caused by borers (whiteheads) it is too late to treat.  In this case the crop is maturing unevenly, so a treatment may still do some good.  It is best to scout for borers when you are scouting for sheath blight injury.  In Texas, the first pyrethroid application for borers is recommended from 1 to 2 inch panicle, followed by a second application at boot.   

The final field we scouted had been treated by CruiserMaxx.  This seed treatment will not control borers, and we did find a few whiteheads in this field as well.  In this case we had a combination of sugarcane borers and rice stalk borers infesting the rice.  The field had already been drained in preparation for harvest, and so a borer treatment is not advised.  The infestation of borers was very light.  

Mike Stout and I are co-advising a graduate student who is focusing her studies on borers.  We hope to know more about borer management, thresholds, insecticide control options, and variety susceptibility in the next couple of years.

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Today we had a nice, but very warm, meeting at the conclusion of the LSU AgCenter Rice Research Station South Farm Tour.  

Farmers, Consultants and Dealers listening in to the presentation at the Hoffpauir Farm in Rayne, La. (photo by Tiffany Pasco)

 

We met at the Hoffpauir farm to discuss the results of the rice water weevil demonstration.  The purpose of this demonstration is to evaluate the use of some currently available insecticides to control rice water weevils in rice fields.  This location has a very nice layout with multiple cuts of the seed treatments (CruiserMaxx and Dermacor X-100) and also two pyrethroid treated cuts.  These treatments were compared to an untreated cut. 

This location was planted in CL111 at a 65 pounds per acre seeding rate.  Rice was drilled in to a water-leveled prepared seedbed.  The field was planted in soybeans in the 2009 season.  Mr. Darryl Hoffpauir farms these fields and his consultant is Mr. Rustin Gilder (Crowley Grain).  County Agent Barrett Courville coordinated the test location.  We would like to thank Barrett, Darryl and Rustin for their efforts in this demonstration test.  

Below is a description of the activities at the field this season.

Activity Date
Planting 3/23/2010
First emergence 4/03/2010
Scouted for first pyrethroid application 5/04/2010
First pyrethroid application (Karate) to dry ground 5/04/2010
Permanent flood 5/04/2010
Scouted for second pyrethroid application 5/13/2010
Second pyrethroid application (Mustang on fertilizer) into flood 5/17/2010
RWW Core samples taken 6/01/2010

Method of data collection: 

Four weeks after permanent flood we gathered core samples by walking through the field from one corner to the opposite corner in an S-shaped pattern and pulling cores at equally spaced intervals across the field.  RWW core data is an average of 10 cores/field.  Below is our overall level of control from the different treatments.  We had a relatively low weevil population at this site, but all products evaluated provided excellent control.

Treatment Average # rww % Control
CruiserMaxx 0.1 96.6
Dermacor X-100 0.1 97.7
Pyrethroid 0.4 90.7
Untreated 4.3  

  

The percent control column indicates relative activity of each insecticide by comparison to the population in the untreated check.

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The new seed treatments are a tool we have available in rice integrated pest managent.  The goal of these treatments is to prevent infestation by rice water weevil larvae.  The two treatments that are available provide variable levels of weevil control.  Historically, Dermacor X-100 has provided a better level of rice water weevil control than CruiserMaxx.  Dermacor typically provides about 95 to 98% control of rww larvae.  CruiserMaxx provides above 80% control.  With this difference in the level of control, it would not be surprising to see some larvae in bucket samples in infested fields.  This year we are evaluating Dermacor X-100 and CruiserMaxx in side-by-side commercial field evaluations.  The data are now coming in.

With a seed treatment it is best not to trust blindly that control will occur because you booked the seed treatment.  I have received a few reports of fields where there was a mix-up with the seed treatment.  The end result was that the seed treatment was not applied on the seed and a weevil infestation was not prevented.  In some cases, this was caught early enough to do something.  In other cases, the rice was past green ring and so there were no options for weevil management.

I’d like to remind everyone to take the time to scout and monitor even those fields that were treated with Dermacor X-100 or CruiserMaxx.  If you happen to find weevil larvae in your field, and you catch the infestation early enough you might need to drain the field.  There are a lot of variables that play into draining – maturity of the crop, time required to drain and reflood the field, availability of water to reflood, and weather conditions.  The LSU AgCenter is not confident in the ability of draining to manage an existing rww infestation, but sometimes this is a measure of last resort.  The research on draining has had mixed results.  We have one drained test plot this year, and Mike and I are discussing some possible research on draining in the future.

If you have fields where the seed treatment is not providing adequate control, please contact me or your local county agent to report the problem.  We are just beginning to take core samples from our test plots.  i will have some results from the core sampling available by next week.

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After wrapping up at the Hoffpauir farm, Barrett and I headed over to Jeff-Davis Parish to take stand counts at the demonstration that Mark Pousson has planted.  The rice is coming along nicely.  At this location, the seed treatments are planted side-by-side in the same cut.  This allows us to easily observe any differences in plant height, vigor, or stand thickness between treatments.  As we were taking stand counts, Barrett observed that if you stood on the edge of the field you could easily see a difference between the untreated seed and the CruiserMaxx treated seed.  I took a few pictures.

Rows of rice grown from untreated seed (no insecticide treatment) in comparison to CruiserMaxx treated seed. The rows are much more visible in the CruiserMaxx treated area.

In the picture above, the untreated area is to the left of the center, while the CruiserMaxx treated plants are to the right.  We don’t know if this will translate to a difference in yield, but it is interesting to note the difference in plant vigor in the early season.

While walking through the field, we also noticed some interesting clusters of eggs.

Egg mass in the water.

Barrett held the egg mass in his hand for a closer look.

I’m not sure if these are frog eggs, but that’s what they look like.  This is a nice reminder of the important job that rice fields serve as a home for a variety of wildlife.  It’s a great working environment for a weekend naturalist.

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Yesterday Barrett Courville and I took stand counts at the Hoffpauir Demo location that is just southwest of Rayne, La (Acadia Parish).  Boy, it was another beautiful day here in south Louisiana!  The fields are coming along well.  We took stand counts and plant height measurements in Dermacor X-100, Cruiser-Maxx and one untreated cut.  We will be entering and analyzing the data soon.  In the meantime, here are some pictures of the fields. 

Plants grown from Dermacor X-100 treated seed.

Plants grown from CruiserMaxx treated seed.

Plants grown from seed that had fungicide, but no insecticide seed treatments. The flush was starting to move across this field.

The next step with this field will be to scout for rww adults in the days leading up to permanent flood.  If rww adults and scarring are found in the field, we will apply a pyrethroid to two of the cuts at the eastern end of the series of cuts.

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Last Friday we took stand counts at the Morein Farm in Evangeline Parish.  This site is located on Miller Lake Road in Ville Platte.  It was selected because neighboring fields suffered a stand reduction due to colaspis larvae feeding on the seedling rice in the 2009 field season.  These particular fields were planted into fields where soybeans were grown last season.  There was no apparent visual difference between the treatments at this time.  The untreated area has a little thinner stand.  

Stand of rice grown from CruiserMaxx treated seed.

Plants grown from Dermacor X-100 treated seed.

Plants grown from seed that did not have an insecticide seed treatment. To the left of the white flags, are CruiserMaxx treated plants.

We did not observe any damage from colaspis.   The stand counts were taken 2 weeks after emergence.  The rice is growing strong.  To measure the stand emergence, we started in one corner of the field and then walked 11 paces between five different spaces in the field.  We measured 6 feet of drill row, counted the number of plants and took the height of 10 plants. The stand count data will be analyzed soon.

Dennis Fontenot and Anna Meszaros recording stand counts and plant height in the CruiserMaxx treated field.

Dennis will continue to closely monitor this field and let us know if any damage from colaspis begins to show up.  Last year, the first reports occurred in mid-May.

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Today we met with cooperators in St. Landry to look at the differences in stand emergence between the insecticide treated (Dermacor X-100, CruiserMaxx) and non-insecticide treated seed (fungicide only).  This location is a joint effort between LSU AgCenter, Horizon Ag, DuPont and Syngenta.  We are evaluating CL151 planted at a variety of seeding rates (#40, #55, #65, #70, #85, #100).     

Dermacor X-100 treated seed to left of flag, untreated seed (fungicide only) to right of flag.

 

 There was no noticeable difference between the Dermacor X-100 and CruiserMaxx treated seed.  These were both planted at 65 lbs per acre.     

Dermacor X-100 treated seed to the left of flag, CruiserMaxx treated seed to the right. No visible difference in stand at this time.

 

 CruiserMaxx is applied at 3.3 fl oz/100 lbs seed, regardless of seeding rate.  One of the objectives of this test is to confirm that CruiserMaxx provides the same level of rww control at low and high seeding rates.  The seeding rates that we are evaluating include the following: 40, #55, #65, #70, #85, #100.  At this point, there is no real visible difference in stand, except when comparing the high (#100) to low (#40).    

CruiserMaxx treated CL151 - plants are just beginning to emerge from the ground. Planted at 40 lbs/acre.

 

CruiserMaxx treated CL151 seed planted at 100 lbs/acre.

 

 We dug around in the untreated area for a little while to see if we could find colaspis larvae feeding on the roots.  We did not find any today.  We’ll return to take stand counts in about two weeks.  These first few weeks of the test are critical for detecting colapsis damage, if it occurs.    

Scouting for colaspis in untreated check area.

 

In the above picture, Dermacor X-100 treated seed is to the LEFT of the white flag.  Untreated area is to the right of the flag.

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Yesterday we planted two demonstration sites.  We started bright and early at Charlie Fontenot’s farm in St. Landry Parish.  Michael Fruge and Sunny Bottoms (both with Horizon Ag) brought their 20 foot Great Plains drill out to the site.  Vince Deshotel met me a the farm office and told me that he had received a call from Kent Guillory telling us that Dave Morein decided to plant his colaspis test site that afternoon.  So, it turned out to be a full day of rice planting. The weather could not have been better and the blue skies with white fluffy clouds were breathtaking.

Planting started with two passes of CL151 seed that was not treated with an insecticide.  This untreated area borders the field road and is next to a marshy area with trees.  There is a good chance that if weevils are overwintering, they will be found near this edge of the field.

After two passes of untreated seed, we cleaned out the drill, and loaded sacks of Dermacor X-100 treated CL151.  6 passes of Dermacor treated seed was planted at the 65 lb seeding rate.  The drill was cleaned out again and loaded up with CL151 treated with CruiserMaxx.  At this point, we started planting a seeding rate trial.  CL151 was planted at a variety of seeding rates.  This will give us a chance to evaluate CL151 at different seeding rates, and also the efficacy of CruiserMaxx at a variety of seeding rates.

This site was chosen because Charlie is suspicious that he experienced stand loss from Colaspis larvae damaging seedlings last season.  If the colaspis show up this season, we will be able to compare Dermacor X-100 and CruiserMaxx activity against this pest.  Also, in the past Charlie has treated with pyrethroids for weevil management.  We are curious to see what the rww population is typically like at this site.  Of course, this year may not be a typical year.  That remains to be seen.

I asked Charlie to call me when first emergence of seedlings is observed.  We’ll take observations on date of first emergence, and then stand counts and plant height 14 days after emergence.  If colaspis are a problem in this field, the damage will be observed in those first few weeks after emergence.

We left Charlie’s at about 11 am to head over to Evangeline Parish.  On the way Dave called, because there had been a break-down and planting would be delayed until about 2 or 3 pm.  No problem, we just took our time heading east.  When the time was right, we headed over to meet Dave Morein, Brian (Dave’s son who is now farming with him full-time), and Dennis Fontenot (Consultant).  When we pulled up dark clouds were threatening and rain started sprinkling lightly as we were planting the last field.

This series of fields is bordered on three sides by Miller Lake and a thick stand of trees.  Historically, there are high populations of rice water weevils.  Dennis had scouted this field site for us last season to monitor the adult colaspis in a field of beans next to a cut of rice that had substantial stand loss from colaspis damage.  In this test we will again compare an untreated check to CruiserMaxx and Dermacor X-100 seed treatment.

When we arrived, Dave had some Dermacor X-100 treated seed still loaded in the drill. left-over from planting another field.  We vacuumed out the hopper and loaded untreated seed.  This series of fields is planted in CLXL729 at a 25 lb seeding rate.  In our test, we are comparing an untreated field, and two passes on the south side of a neighboring cut (both are the high points in this area) to Dermacor X-100, and CruiserMaxx treated fields.

We will be scouting intensively during the first two weeks after emergence to see if the colaspis larvae overwintered and may cause damage in the rice.  Dennis had GPS marked his sampling sites in the untreated rice field and we will mark those with flags and sample the area for larvae.  It will be interesting to see if there is a relationship between the adult colaspis population in the soybeans last season, and the population of colapsis larvae in the  seedling rice this season.

I’m not sure what transpired with the rain that was just starting to come down when we left the field.  I’ll be checking in with Kenneth LaHaye this afternoon.  Tentative plans are to plant at the LaHaye farm in Evangeline Parish tomorrow.  Of course, it all depends on the weather.  We also may plant in Acadia, Concordia, and Evangeline Parish this week.

Sorry I did not include pictures, I need to load my download cable in my camera bag.  I’ll try to add pictures in the next few days.

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